The formula for paint and glaze consist of 3 items mixed together.
PAINT = BINDER + SOLVENT + COLORANT
GLAZE = PAINT + BINDER + SOLVENT
The pigment is used to create the most obvious attribute of the formula — it’s color. Pigments are colored powders obtained from a variety of sources, both organic (derived from animal or plant sources) and inorganic (processed from mineral sources). See post: color palette
The binder is the component of the paint/glaze in which the particles of pigment are suspended and that which dries and/or oxidizes (changes from a liquid to a solid) to form the basis of the cured paint/glaze film. This element affects quality, durability, and surface finish. Some examples of binders are; linseed oil, acrylic medium, egg, and beer.
As a paint ingredient, a solvent regulates a paint’s consistency by diluting the binder. A solvent evaporates after the paint has been applied, leaving behind a curing film of binder and pigment. A solvent is called a thinner when it is added to paint in order to thin down its consistency or to reduce its working time, such as when mixing a glaze. Some examples of solvents are; water, alcohol, turpentine, and thinner.